Basic information for html and website codes / properties.

Learn HTML

Below are basic information for html and website codes / properties.

The structure of an HTML page:

  • DOCTYPE defines what the page type is
  • Everything in-between the <html> and the </html> defines the page
  • Everything in-between the <body> and the </body> defines the visible portion of the page.
  • Everything in-between the <head> and the </head> defines the invisible portion of the page.

What is HTML?

  • HTML is NOT a programming language… it is a markup language.
  • HTML contains markup tags
  • The markup tags are used to describe/define the content on the page.
  • HTML = Hyper Text Markup Language

Tags and whatnots…

  • Most markup tags come in pairs… an opening tag and a closing tag.  The closing tag has a forward slash — / — in the tag.  A tag is wrapped with angle brackets.
    • <b> … </b>
    • <i> … </i>
    • <body> … </body>
    • <p> … </p>
  • Some special cases contain the opening and closing tag in the same tag.
    • <img src=”blue.gif” />
    • <br />
  • HTML TAGS and HTML ELEMENTS are the SAME thing.
  • HTML tags are NOT case sensitive… but you should only use LOWER CASE tags.

The most elementary HTML tags dealing with content are the following:

Paragraph tags:
<p>This is information in a paragraph.</p>

Header tags:
<h1>Header One</h1>
<h2>Header Two</h2>

<h6>Header Three</h3>

Header’s are important in providing structure to the content of your site.  Search engines look to headers to help divide the content.

Link Tags:
<a href=”http://google.com”>Linking to Google</a>

Image Tags:
<img src=”lunar.gif” />

Attributes added to elements/tags

We can add a number of attributes to most elements and tags

  • class = defines the CSS class for that element
  • id = defines the CSS ID for that element
  • style = defines the inline CSS style for that element
  • title = defines extra information (used as a tooltip)

Examples:

  • <p class=”muffins”>This p tag has a .muffins class assigned to it.</p>
  • <p id=”toppop”>This p tag has a #toppop id assigned to it.</p>
  • <p style=”color:#000;”>This p tag has a black CSS color assigned to is.</p>

Making Comments

Making comments in your code are key to remember things about your code and structure of your site.  Anything wrapped by a <!– and then closed by a –> will appear as a comment and not visible to the person visiting the site.

<!– This is my comment to myself –>
(Hint.  It’s an open bracket, exclamation point, two dashes… and then at the end two dashes and a close bracket.)

HTML Basic Document

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<title>Title of document goes here</title>
</head>
<body>
Visible text goes here…
</body>
</html>

Heading Elements

<h1>Largest Heading</h1>
<h2> . . . </h2>
<h3> . . . </h3>
<h4> . . . </h4>
<h5> . . . </h5>
<h6>Smallest Heading</h6>

Text Elements

<p>This is a paragraph</p>
<br /> (line break)
<hr /> (horizontal rule)
<pre>This text is preformatted</pre>

Logical Styles

<em>This text is emphasized</em>
<strong>This text is strong</strong>
<code>This is some computer code</code>

Physical Styles

<b>This text is bold</b>
<i>This text is italic</i>

Links

Ordinary link: <a href=”http://www.example.com/”>Link-text goes here</a>
Image-link: <a href=”http://www.example.com/”><img src=”URL” alt=”Alternate Text” /></a>
Mailto link: <a href=”mailto:webmaster@example.com”>Send e-mail</a>
A named anchor:
<a name=”tips”>Tips Section</a>
<a href=”#tips”>Jump to the Tips Section</a>

Unordered list

<ul>
<li>Item</li>
<li>Item</li>
</ul>

Ordered list

<ol>
<li>First item</li>
<li>Second item</li>
</ol>

Definition list

<dl>
<dt>First term</dt>
<dd>Definition</dd>
<dt>Next term</dt>
<dd>Definition</dd>
</dl>

Tables

<table border=”1″>
<tr>
<th>Tableheader</th>
<th>Tableheader</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>sometext</td>
<td>sometext</td>
</tr>
</table>

Iframe

<iframe src=”demo_iframe.htm”></iframe>

Frames

<frameset cols=”25%,75%”>
<frame src=”page1.htm” />
<frame src=”page2.htm” />
</frameset>

Forms

<form action=”http://www.example.com/test.asp” method=”post/get”>
<input type=”text” name=”email” size=”40″ maxlength=”50″ />
<input type=”password” />
<input type=”checkbox” checked=”checked” />
<input type=”radio” checked=”checked” />
<input type=”submit” value=”Send” />
<input type=”reset” />
<input type=”hidden” />

<select>
<option>Apples</option>
<option selected=”selected”>Bananas</option>
<option>Cherries</option>
</select>
<textarea name=”comment” rows=”60″ cols=”20″></textarea>

</form>

Entities

&lt; is the same as <
&gt; is the same as >
&#169; is the same as ©

Other Elements

<!– This is a comment –>
<blockquote>
Text quoted from a source.
</blockquote>
<address>
Written by W3Schools.com<br />
<a href=”mailto:us@example.org”>Email us</a><br />
Address: Box 564, Disneyland<br />
Phone: +12 34 56 78
</address>